The Larsson/Palmqvist Sagas
Maria Josefina (Mia)
Born 19 June 1883 Hålunda, Nysund, Wermland,
Married 22 April 1916 Hedemora, Dalarna
Carl Theodor Dahlberg
The story of Maria Josefina Larsson Palmqvist (Dahlberg) (1883-1959) is strictly a Wermlands Saga of at least 300 years in the same small region south of Degerfors in the Nysund parish and Karlskoga. Maria was born with surname Larsdotter, the 7th child of Lars Magnus Larsson (1840-1903) and Anna Stina Ersdotter (b. 1845). According to the settlement of her parents will of 1906, Maria was living in Björkborn, Karlskoga. She was a skilled seamstress (sömmerska) in Karlskoga who worked for many years at Huldah Ericksson's Kappäffar (Coats & Hats Store) on Kungsvägen, Karlskoga. (Photo left: Ericksson's Seamstresses in their handiwork, Maria sitting left; Photo right: Sömmerskor at work, Maria 4th from left)
Lars Magnus Larsson
Born 27 May 1840 Nysund, Wermland, Wermlands län
Married 7 October 1864 Degernäs ägor, Karlskoga, Wermland, Örebro länParents: Erik Ersson and Johanna Andersdotter
Born 1 January 1845 Degernäs ägor, Karlskoga, Wermland,
Oscar Wilhelm Larsson was born 11 Dec 1865.
Carl Johan Larsson (b. 28 Oct 1870) had children Knut, Evert, Uno, Valda, Ragnar and Vivian.
Axel Victor Palmqvist was born 29 Jan 1873 and died Jan 1958 at age 85.
Gustav Adolph, born 23 Apr 1879 was from Filipstad, north of Karlskoga (photo above right). One record says he died at age 100 on 23 Apr 1979, but this needs verification.
Emma Christina was born 28 Feb 1877 and died at the age of 92 in 1969 (photo with sister Maria below).
The youngest daughter Elisa Maria (Elin) was born 22 Aug 1886 and died 13 Mar 1948. She married Oskar Theodor Nilsson on 23 Apr 1910 and they had children Gote Oskar (m. Maja Stina Carlstedt) and Ture Herbert (m. Hedvig Sigrid Edgren). Elisa is the grandmother of Sten, Ebbe and Per Nilsson, members of the well-known Swedish dance band, Sten and Stanley.
Axel Victor appears to have first adopted the surname Palmqvist (meaning palm branch) breaking with the patronymic naming system (children take the first name of the father plus -son or -dotter), the females used Larsdotter in some places and both male and female children also used Larsson at one time. Carl, Axel, Johann, Maria and Elin also used the surname Palmqvist in some documents. In a document distributing father Lars Magnus' property in 24 Sep 1906, children Karl Johan, Axel Victor and Johan Alfred are written as Palmqvist. However, all children who signed the document used Larsson in their signatures. On another related document dated 12 Nov 1904, the girls signed their surname name as Larsdotter and Anna Stina signed hers as Ericksson m.h.o.p.
Lars Magnus Larsson. The parents of Lars Magnus are unknown (his fathers given name is assumed to be Lars). In various records Lars Magnus' birth is listed as 27 May 1840 on the Wermland's side of Nysund ("W.S."). However, his birth record cannot be located so far in Nysund records either for the Wermland or Nerke sides for the period 1839-1841. In 1860, "dräng" Lars Magnus Larsson moved from Rudskoga (south of Nysund on Lake Skagern) to the Degernäs ägor estate just south of Karlskoga. A "dräng" was a farm laborer that usually contracted to work on the estate for a certain length of time for lodging, clothing and other necessities. Some estates paid a small wage and gave a little time off the estate.
He apparently was a close associate of Anders Gustaf Ersson, the brother of Lars' future wife Anna Stina Ersdotter. In the 1861-65 records Anders is listed in the same books, thus was in the same parish as Lars Magnus. Lars Magnus probably met Anna Stina, while she was a maid or household worker ("piga") on the Degernäs ägor. An ägor was a large estate which employed a number of people at different levels that came in to work daily, "torparna" who had private cottages and some land for personal use on the estate, and many drängs and pigas that lived on the estate). The Degernäs ägor estate is on the southwest shore of Lake Möckeln near Degerfors town.
In 1862 Lars Magnus left his life as a farm dräng on Degernäs ägor and moved to Karls-Åby in Karlskoga proper where he was listed as a "Lös. Arbk," one who was available for hire as a worker. Lars Magnus and wife Anna Stina appear together in the records for the first time in Gräsholmstorp, a neighborhood just southwest of Degerförs town, in 1865 where Lars is listed as an "Inhys." or an individual who was a live-in or boarder who was available to work. They were married on 7 Oct 1864 at Degernäs ägor. In the 1864 records, Lars Magnus was listed in Karls-Åby and Anna Stina was listed in Degernäs parish. Their marriage is noted by asterisk by each of their names in each of the two places. After the marriage, Lars took over his father-in-law Erik Ersson's torp at Karshagen (also written Carlshagen or Karlshagen).
The couple's first child, Oscar Wilhelm Larsson, was born on 11 Dec 1865. Soon after Lars Magnus' profession was listed as a "rättare," a foreman on a farm or estate, possibly Degernäs ägor in this case. Children Carl Johan, Axel Victor and Johan Alfred, all listed as born in Karlskoga in birth records, were born prior to their next move in 1874.
On 9 Nov 1874, rättare Larsson and family moved further south to Hålunda between Degerfors and Nysund where they remained for the census periods 1876-80 and 1881-85. Here Emma Christina, Gustav Adolph, Maria Josefina and Elsa Maria were born. Then Lars Magnus and family moved from Hålunda to Karlskoga town on 1 Nov 1887. Soon after the complete family was recorded in Norrhult north of Degernäs, west of the Lake Möckeln shore through 1895 and apparently until his death on 27 Feb 1903. At this time, Lars Magnus' occupation was listed as "bergsmannen," an administrator or sometimes owner of a significant area of land containing forest, farmland, and often minerals and other natural resources. The natural resources on the land as fuel and building materials were sometimes employed for the public good, subsidized by the community and therefore, the bergsmannen's source of income was the community, or even a share of the resource. Records indicate that Lars Magnus died from a lung inflammation. The published obituary for Lars Magnus written by wife Anna Stina is shown at left.
Lars Magnus and his father-in-law Erik Ersson's progression in life was typical of men with ambition and spirit in the forests and fields of Wermland in the late 19th century. Leaving home as early as the age of 13, they indentured themselves for support as a dräng on the farm, or a live-in laborer in the villages. Acquisition of stewardship of a torp was a large jump in relative independence and opportunity and usually correlated with marriage. Lars' father-in-law, Erik Ersson acquired a torp in his 20's while Lars and Erik's daughter, Anna Stina, acquired the torp upon their marriage when Lars was 24. With the acquisition may have been an outright purchase or some sort of agreement for support. The independence, status and opportunity given by stewardship of the torp coupled with his drive and ambition gave rise to the position of rättare or foreman of the farm or estate with its increase responsibilities and presumably rewards. This experience then gave rise to the position of bergsmannen, a position of still more responsibility, respect and potential personal reward. Anna Stina Ersdotter and her mother Johanna Andersdotter in turn illustrate the life of a young girl in the region and period. Both left home in their teens to become indentured for support as a piga or maid. There was high probability of meeting a future husband from the many drängs on the estate whose lives were similarly restricted to it. Most became dedicated homemakers and only in the next generation into the 20th century were new opportunities as illustrated by Anna Stina's daughter, Maria Larsdotter, who become a skilled and professional seamstress (sömmerska).
Anna Stina Ersdotter (Larsson). Almost all lines of the ancestors of Anna Stina Ersdotter (b. 1845), Maria Palmqvist Dahlbergs mother and wife of Lars Magnus Larsson, can be traced to the early 1700's. Her ancestors and descendants have been Wermlanders in the Nysund region south of Karlskoga for the entire 300-year period. 1860 church records indicate that Anna Stina first moved from her parents Erik Ersson and Johanna Andersdotter at Karshagen torp to become a "piga på gården" (farm's maid) on Degernäs ägor. It is there where she probably met husband Lars Magnus Larsson who was a dräng on the estate together with Anna's brother Anders.
Anna Stina Ersdotter (Larsson)'s parents were Erik Ersson and Johanna Andersdotter
Parents: Erik Ersson and Maria Olsdotter
Born 22 November 1813 Rotebäcken, Wermland, Örebro län
Married 29 December 1839 Elgkärr, Wermland, Örebro länParents: Anders Ersson and Cajsa Jansdotter
Born 2 February 1813 Elfgrafstorp, Nysund, Wermland, Wermlands
Children: Anders Gustaf, Anna Stina, and Lovisa
Anders Gustaf was born 31 Dec 1841 in Elgkärr (Älgkärr) in Karlskoga, his relationship with Lars Magnus Larsson, who married Anna Stina, has been described. There were two daughters, Anna Stina, and Lovisa born 12 Mar 1850. On 11 Sep 1880 Lovisa married Nils Gustaf Gustafsson. They had children Ida Amalia, Hilda Josefina, Emma Christina, Oskar Vilhelm and Selma Lovisa. Nils and Lovisa lived on Degernäs ägor for many years, notes from Karlskoga records indicate that Lovisa had three children out of wedlock before marriage to Nils. After 1883 they are listed in the Degerfors Churchbooks. Apparently Erik Ersson adopted Johanna's "o. äkta" son, Erik Nilsson. The term "o. äkta" recorded in the parish records means literally "not real" or an illegitimate child. Erik died on 19 May 1842 at the age of 7, cause listed as "heartache," meaning probably tuberculosis.
Erik Ersson (noted II hereafter to distinguish him from his father, Erik Ersson I, of the same name) was born in 1813 in Rotebäcken. Rotebäcken is just northeast of Hålunda. Both are southwest of Degerfors on the Wermland (west) side of the Letälven canal. Dräng Erik first left his parent's home in Ölsdalen in 1826. Ölsdalen is east of Lake Möckeln between Degerfors and Karlskoga. He moved in and out of Ölsdalen to surrounding areas between 1826 and 1830. He moved from Ölsdalen to Bregårdstorp in Karlskoga proper in 1830, then in 1831 to Björkborn (also a part of Karlskoga village now) from Bregårdstorp and in 1833 he moved from Björkborn to Elgkärr (Älgkärr). In 1835, Erik moved back to Björkborn where he is listed together with his brother Anders Ersson who also arrived there in 1835. They both lived in Björkborn in 1836. Sometime in 1836 Erik Ersson moved to Bofors (now also in Karlskoga town) until 1838 when he moved south to Norrhult on the west bank of Lake Möckeln north of Degernäs.
In 1840 Erik was back in Elgkärr and was married to piga Johanna Andersdotter. They were married on 29 Dec 1839. Both were written in between other names in the 1840 church ledger. On 31 Dec 1841, the couple's first child, Anders Gustaf Ersson was born. In 1842 the family was still in Elgkärr, in 1843 they were in Stenbacks ägor and appear on Degernäs ägor in 1845 where Anna Stina was born on 1 Jan 1845. Erik Nilsson (b. 1834), Johanna's "o.äkta" (illegitimate) son, is listed with the family. On 12 Mar 1850, daughter Lovisa was born. For the periods 1846-1850, 1856-60 and 1861-65, Erik was a hired hand (dräng) who worked his way up to "torpare" on the Degernäs ägor estate.
The word torp is often translated as "croft" and the "torpare" a "crofter" according to the British term. A croft refers to a piece of land next to a cottage, a crofter the resident of the cottage and steward of the piece of land. The torp was a piece of property, usually part of a larger estate, on which there is a cottage and land that could be tended for the torpare's own use. Most commonly the torpare also contributed his labor to activities of the larger estate in exchange for the privacy and jurisdiction over a piece of the estate. A torp which produced for the estate or another owner can be equated to the American tenant farmer or sharecropper who farms a piece of land owned by another and paid the owner with a percentage of the produce from the land. Stewardship or ownership of a torp was often passed from one generation to another. The torp system is alive and well in current Värmland in the form of summer or free time retreat cottages that range from nearly similar in facilities to what they were in the 19th century to winterized homes. Even those of most modest means can afford the extremely reasonable rent, often in the form of a very long term lease, of small pieces of land in the countryside and on the lakesides that can be improved by the steward of the torp. The lease is often passed within families or titles bought outright over time from the landowner.
In 1859, Erik and family moved to Carlshagen Torp which is now a region of Degerfors town. In 1859 son Anders Gustaf is listed separately on the Degernäs ägor books. In 1860, daughter Anna Stina is also listed separately as a "piga på gården" on Degernäs ägor. As described earlier, Erik Ersson's torp was also spelled as Karshagen. In 1865 son-in-law Lars Magnus Larsson took over the torp after marriage to Erik's daughter Anna Stina. It is assumed that Erik and Johanna may have lived on the torp with them. In 1881-83, Erik was noted in the ledgers as sick and "fattighjon" which means he was a pauper and possibly a ward of the parish for his support. After 1883, Erik is listed in the Degerfors records when Degerfors became a separate parish from Karlskoga.
Erik Ersson II's parents were Erik Ersson I and Maria Olsdotter
Johanna Andersdotter (Ersson)'s parents were Anders Ersson and Cajsa Jansdotter
Johanna Andersdotter (Ersson) was born at Elfsgraftorp on the Wermland's side of Nysund parish on 2 Feb 1813. Elfsgraftorp (Älvsgravstorp) is south of Degerfors. In 1831 piga Johanna moved to Hagåsen from her parent's, Anders Ersson and Cajsa Jansdotter, home in Degerforsen about the time of her father's death. Hagåsen is west of Degerfors. In 1832 she was in Stora Strömtorp, north of Degerfors. In 1834 she was a piga on Stora Strömtorps ägor and was recorded there with "o.äkta" (illegitimate) son Erik Nilsson through 1835. Erik was born on 10 Oct 1834. She moved to Degerforsen in 1837 from Stora Strömtorps ägor, and then to Elgkärr in Karlskoga where she is listed with husband Erik Ersson and son Eric Nilsson in 1840. They were married 29 Dec 1839 presumably in Elgkärr in Karlskoga.
Parents: Erik Larsson and Lisken Larsdotter
Born 19 August 1774 Ölsdalen, Karlskoga, Wermland, Örebro län
Married 1807 Rotebäcken, Nysund, Wermland, Örebro länParents: Olav Persson and Stina Andersdotter
Born 7 October 1782 Rotebäcken, Nysund, Wermland, Örebro län
Children: Stina (b. 1807), Anna (1809-1811), Maria (b. 7 Oct 1811), Erik (1813-aft 1883), Anders (b. 21 Oct 1815), Karl (28 Nov 1820)
Erik Ersson I was born on 19 Aug 1774 in Ölsdalen between Degerfors and Karlskoga, he appears in the Nysund area about 1805. In 1803-08, he is listed alone in Rotebäcken north of Nysund on the Wermland side. In the 1808-1812 records he is listed with wife Maria and daughters Stina (b. 1807), Anna (1809-1811) and Maria (b. 1811) in Rotebäcken. Erik and Maria were married in 1807 in Rotebäcken. In the Rotebäcken records of 1813-1816, Erik is recorded as a "bruckerer," which was a tenant farmer who managed a sizable farm. Seven other drangs and pigas were living on the farm. It was here that son Erik Ersson II was born on 22 Nov 1813. In the 1816-20 records Erik is listed as an "Undant." with wife and children Maria, Erik and Anders (b. 21 Oct 1815). "Undant." means an "Undantagsman" meaning a retired farmer living on the pension or proceeds from his farm. In 1819 the family moved in or out of Utterbeck (Utterbäck), Karlskoga in 1819. (The family is underscored with dots). It is unclear where the family was precisely up until 1821-1825 when they appear at no.10 Osterviks Roten, Ölsdalens ägor. "Undantag." Erik is listed with wife and child Maria (who moved away from home in 1824), Eric II, Anders and Carl (b. 28 Nov 1820). A note says he is weak and sickly. In the period 1826-30 son Erik Ersson II left home and appears single in Ölsdalen in 1826. From the notes of A.A. Petersson (Kristinehamn 1918) which are in Karlskoga's Hemsbygdforeningen and provided by Kjell Nordqvist:
Erik Ersson I's parents were Erik Larsson and Lisken Larsdotter
Maria Olsdotter (Ersson)'s parents were Olaf Persson and Stina Andersdotter.
Maria Olsdotter (Ersson)'s baptism in 1782 was witnessed by Lars Persson and wife ("hustru") Maria-Stina Ersdotter from Rotebäcken. The church records from Karlskoga parish of 1778-1790 list Maria with her family in Rotebäcken: Olaf Persson b. 1756, wife Stina Andersdotter b. 1759, Maria b. 1782 and Lisa b. 1788. For 1791-98 the Olaf Persson family is similarly listed with additions Stina b. 1789, Anna b. 1792 d. 1794, then Anna b. 1795. For the period 1798-1802, all are listed similarly with Jacob b. 1802 added. In the 1803-08 records, the family is recorded as living in Ölsdalen. All names are marked through except Maria and Erik. Erik is listed separately just below the family. This likely means that the family left the area except Erik and Maria, or death of the parents with the family breaking up. In the 1808-1812 records, Maria is listed with husband Erik Ersson and children Stina (b. 1807), Anna (1809-1811) and Maria (b. 1811) in Rotebäcken.
Born 1738 Ölsdalen, Karlskoga, Wermland, Örebro län
Children: Britta b. 1761, Maria b. 1763, Lisken b. 1765, Lars b. 1767, Joseph b. 1772, Erik (1774-1834), Stina b. 1776
In the Karlskoga parish records of 1771-1776, the Erik Larsson family are listed with the above children in Erik b. 1774 are in Ölsdalen. Just above them is recorded Lars Larsson b. 1746, wife Maria b. 1754, children Brita b. 1758, Olof b. 1759 and Maria b. 1775 which could be a relative.
Parents: Erik Olsson and Annika Assmundsdotter
Born 22 April 1767 Rotebäcken, Nysund, Wermland, Örebro län
Born 1774 Tängeråsen, Närke, Örebro län
Children: Erik (b. 28 Feb 1790), Maria (b. 17 Mar 1795), Olaf (b. 17 Aug 1803), Johanna (1813-aft 1883), Stina (b. 27 Nov 1814)
Anders Ersson's birth is recorded in Nysund parish records at Rotebäcken, his father as Eric Olsson, his mother Annika Assmundsdotter. Jonas Persson from Grytion? (possibly Grytbäcken or Grytsjön north of Rotebäcken) was a witness for the baptism. Born in 1767, Anders is listed with father Eric Olsson and family through 1790. In 1813 he is listed as a "dagkarl" Anders in Elfgrafstorp, Nysund parish where Johanna Andersdotter was born on 2 Feb 1813. The family could not be located at Elfgrafstorp in the 1808-12 records. A "dagkarl" was a dayworker on a farm who maintained a separate home and went to work on the farm during the day. This was a step up from a dräng who lived on the farm and had nothing more than room and board, or a small wage. Married son Erik, wife Lisa and daughter was living with the family. Erik moved in from Lund in 1819 and his wife Lisa Olsdotter (b. 3 Nov 1788) came from Lund (near Karlstad on Lake Vänern) in 1814. In 1816, son Erik and daughter (Anna Lisa Andersson, b. 1819) moved to Billinge (south of Rotebäcken, just north of Nysund town). Ander's daughters Anna and Maria moved back and forth from home in the period. In the period 1816-20, Anders and family were in Degerforsen, Karlskoga parish with children Anna, Olaf, Johanna and Stina. In 1821-25, the family was still in Degerforsen. Anna moved to Bodema? during that time. Johanna moved out and then back in 1825, according to a note in the "admon" column of the church books. During 1826-30, the family was in Degerforsen where Anders died in 1831. At about this time, Johanna married Erik Ersson in Elgkärr.
From Anders Ersson's birth record, it can be determined that his parents were Eric Olafsson and Annika Assmundsdotter of Rotebäcken. The family is recorded for the period 1778-1790 in Rotebäcken: Eric Olafsson b. 1721 and wife Annika Assmundsdotter b. 1731, with children Anna b. 1757, Anders b.1767, and Nils b. 1770.
Maria Josefina Larsdotter Larsson Palmqvist(Dahlberg) was the greatgrandmother of Maria Kristina McKeehan, daughter of the website author.