OF DEWITT COLONY TEXAS
© 1997-2000, Wallace L. McKeehan, All Rights Reserved
The Journal of Lieutenant Colonel Don Manuel Salcedo
March 11, 1810 - June 23, 1810
Journal of the occurrences on the journey made by his Lordship, the Governor of this province, Lieutenant Colonel Don Manuel Salcedo, on his general visit to the Frontier: Year of 1810.
11 At 10:00 in the morning we left from this Capital, escorted by a corporal and six soldiers. At 1:00 in the afternoon, we arrived at the Cibolo Creek, where we explored six leagues, and rested one hour. We left at two, and directed ourselves toward Guadalupe. We arrived at 5:00--stopping at said Post. We joined with Captain Don Luciano Garcia, who had left from the capital in advance with an escort party and loads of baggage and provisions, having traveled this afternoon six leagues; total of the journey, twelve leagues.
12 We continued the march at 6:00. At 6:09 we arrived at Peñitas Creek where we completed three leagues. We rested one hour leaving at ten minutes past twelve. We arrived at the Villa de San Marcos, having traveled on this second part, three leagues. On this road we encountered Lieutenant Don Pedro Treviño, Commandant of this villa, who was going to visit the Post at Guadalupe. In this town we found the Indian Chief Tambor, three braves, two women of the Tahuacanos and one Tancahue, whom they called "El Oyoso", They were traveling toward Béxar. His Lordship, the Governor, talked with them by means of an interpreter. The total this journey, six leagues.13 We stopped in this Villa, and the Indian, Oyoso, returned to his village, having been given one bundle of tobacco for himself and his village by order of the Lord Governor. At three in the afternoon, his Lordship left accompanied by the officers and three orderlies. They traveled a distance of one league around the villa, to examine its topography and crossings.
14 At 8:00 we left in the direction of the Colorado River, the day already dawning because of our late departure. At eleven we arrived at Olmitos Creek, having traveled five leagues. We departed at 2:00 so that we would be in the proximity of the Visnagas branch that evening. We arrived at 5:00 in the afternoon, having traveled five leagues. At 5:30, two soldiers of the Colorado River Post presented themselves to his Lordship the Governor bringing the mail pouch and dispatches of the royal service. Afterward, they continued on their way. The total of this trip, ten leagues.
15 We left at eight. Having traveled until 11:30, we stopped to eat by some lakes extending into forest. We were further away from the protection of San Felipe. We had traveled five leagues. We left again at one. After a short time we were met by Ensign Elquezabal and Don Julian Largigue the latter going to his post escorted by a corporal and three soldiers of the Colorado detachment.
We continued our march, so that we would be at Lobanillo Creek by evening. We arrived at three o'clock after a march of two and one half leagues. Sergeant Granados joined us a dusk. He, by a greater authority, was going to Nacogdoches on business of his own. The total of the journey, seven and one half leagues.
16 We arose at daybreak without news. We left at 7:30 and at 11:30 arrived at the Colorado River. We found it swollen, although within its banks. We stopped at the right bank and proceeded to cross on the ferry-boat. We finished crossing at 2:30. The animals did not cross immediately. There was a lack of pasture for them on the left bank of the river. At 3:30 a special courier arrived from Trinidad bringing two packets directed to Béxar, one for his Lordship the Governor and the other for Don Geronimo de Herrera. The Governor took the first and the other continued on to its address. The total day's journey, five leagues.
17 At dawn it was drizzling. We left at nine and at one in the afternoon, it was still drizzling as we crossed the Agua Dulce(Sweet Water). We had traveled a total, five leagues.
18 The sun rose uneventfully. We broke camp at 6:30, as the rain began to clear. We did not leave until nine, stopping at Mare's Creek at two because one of the cargo mules had become exhausted. We had traveled six leagues.
19 We left at 7:30 and after traveling a distance of two leagues we arrived at Ayces Creek, which, though boggy, had little water within its banks. At 11:30 we arrived at Olmos Creek. We found it swollen, necessitating the repair of a bridge so that we could cross with horses and equipment. This operation was concluded at four in the afternoon. We again took up our march meeting Sergeant José Manuel Chapa coming from Nacogdoches carrying the payroll of the militia. He was to leave provisions at said post and at Trinidad. We stopped at Eel Creek at 5:30. Two horses and a mule came up exhausted and sick. Today we marched six and one half leagues.
20 We arose at daybreak without news. We left at 7:15 and at a distance of two leagues we crossed Nuncio Creek. We arrived at the Brazos at 11:30 having traveled six leagues. Two horses became exhausted. This river has a considerable volume of water within its banks. At noon we proceeded to cross in the canoe. At five we finished transporting all the equipment and men. We slept on the left bank of the river. We traveled a total of six leagues.
21 At eight-thirty we set out, leaving a sick horse where we had camped. We had to cross the second rivulet, however we were able to cross by walking on the bottom laterally.[lit.urraso cresido pero se paso bolapie el ayladero]. All the bayous were boggy. At 2:15 we arrived at Tinaxitas Creek. We traveled six and one half leagues.
22 We arose at daybreak without incident. We continued our march until 7:30. At a distance of four leagues we crossed Corpus Christi Creek. At 12:15 we arrived at the Navasota. Its banks were full of water, but not to overflowing. We ferried the supplies in quarter loads completing the task by 3 o'clock. We traveled six and one half leagues.
23 We continued at 7:15. At 11:00 we crossed Carriso Creek, at a distance of five leagues. Further, at a distance of One and one quarter leagues we crossed the Leona. At 1:30 we stopped at Los Nisperitos (Little Persimmons). We traveled seven and one half leagues. At seven that evening the horses and mules stampeded and at a distance of two leagues the guard of the same recovered them in part.
24 Right after sunrise, search was given for the rest of the animals, and they were found by the Sergeant in command without further incident. We left by nine. At noon we passed the Tranquitas, at a distance of four leagues. We arrived at the river and town of Trinidad at two in the afternoon. We immediately began to cross the swollen river in the canoe. This operation was completed at six in the afternoon. The animals remained on the right bank because of better pasture. We traveled a total of six and one half leagues.
25 We stayed in town. Review of the company's armament, clothing and equipment was passed. The guard of the mounts was relieved.
26 Today we stayed in town. Sergeant Granados, a corporal and two soldiers of the Nacogdoches' Detachment, on their way from Béxar, joined us as they traveled to Nacogdoches as relief troops.
27 We stayed in town. A Keechie Indian Chief with thirteen braves[gandules:lit."loafers"] presented themselves to his Lordship, the Governor.
28 The guard of the mounts was relieved. Nothing new occurred.
29 No news.
30 The same. His Lordship, the Governor, ordered an abstract with directions to Béxar.
31 The guard of the mounts was relieved.
1 No news.
2 The same
3 The soldier guarding the mounts was relieved and all the animals were moved to the left bank of the river.
4 Nothing occurred. A son of Chief Custon of the Keechies presented himself and forty braves of the same nation to his Lordship, the Governor. A handful of tobacco was given to them by order of the Governor.
5 Without news.
6 The guard of the mounts was relieved.
7 At ten, a special courier from Nacogdoches, presented himself to the Lord Governor. He was carrying a diplomatic pouch addressed to the Governor. At eleven thirty he left for Béxar.
8 At nine in the morning, Captain Don Luciano Garcia left with Alférez Tarín, a corporal and thirteen soldiers belonging to the escort. Also went, besides those of this post, a sergeant and ten soldiers. This totals twenty-seven, which carry orders from his Lordship, the Governor, to rejoin our troops in Nacogdoches.
At 12:30 we left for Nacogdoches, with the entire escort. His Lordship left the carriage, a coachman and complement of the coach, comprised of ten mules and the mare, in Trinidad. Also six mounts, useless from weakness, remained behind. The soldier that had been guarding this herd, remained behind with them delivering to the commandant of Trinidad four horses and a pack mule. At four in the afternoon we stopped on the lake of Uncle Cayetano. We traveled this day, four leagues.
9 After sunrise, as the mounts and mules were being rounded up, two of the horses were determined useless by His Lordship the Governor. This was directed to the Commandant at Trinidad.
We left at eight and at 11:30 we stopped on Carriso creek, a distance of five leagues. The escort crossed and we left at one. At four we arrived at San Nicolas Creek, having traveled on this second part, six leagues a total of eleven leagues.
10 We left at eight (the night before the mounts had stampeded, but nothing else occurred). At 11:45 we stopped to eat on San Pedro, having traveled six and one half leagues. At one past we set out, at a distance of three leagues we crossed the Neches River, which, although it flowed swiftly, did not hinder our crossing. Continuing, we arrived at El Serrito [The Little Saw], at a distance of one league. Following it we spent the night at the landmark of Chabus, traveling two leagues from this. The total distance traveled, twelve and one half leagues.
11 We set out at 7:15 and at a distance of one and a quarter league we crossed Alazan Creek. Continuing, at 10:30 we arrived at the Angelina River, a distance of four leagues. We rode until we arrived at the Barr Ranch after 11:00, a distance of one league. We left at 1:00. At 4:00 and at a distance of five leagues we arrived at the village of Nacogdoches. The total distance traveled was thirteen and one fourth leagues.
12 Without news.
13 The same. By order of his Lordship, the Governor, a general review of the escort that is here was passed.
14 An Indian Chief, two braves, seventeen braves, twenty-four women, twenty children, all of the Yugani Nation, presented themselves to his Lordship the Governor. There were sixty-four Indians in this group.
15 The guard of the horses was relieved. Gifts were given to the Yugani Indians. Nothing else occurred.
16 Five Biloxi Indians presented themselves to his Lordship the Governor. They were accompanied by seven women and three children. They brought with them a letter for the Governor from Captain Don Luciano Garcia.
17 The guard of the horses was relieved.
18 The Biloxi Indians were given gifts. There was no news.
19 No news.
20 At 7:30, Captain Don Luciano Garcia presented himself to the Lord Governor. He had gone out with the party that left on the eighth of this current month from the town of Trinidad. They did not bring any more news other than eight muskets had been broken and that one horse was left behind due to exhaustion brought on by the swamps and highlands through which they had traveled. A Choctaw came with him serving as his guide. At eleven, Corporal Pedro Grande with two soldiers from Atascosito presented themselves to the Governor.
21 Nothing new occurred.
22 The same. The guard of the mounts was relieved. At three in the afternoon the Governor went out with the officers and citizens of this village to reconnoiter the neighborhoods of that place. The picket from Trinidad, that was traveling with Don Luciano, retired.
23 Nothing new. José Flores, of the Alamo Company and member of the escort, was made a prisoner by order of the Governor.
24 Nothing new occurred.
25 The guard of the mounts was relieved. Nothing else occurred.
26 The Indian Chief, Tacona, of the Orcoquisac and a Bidais presented themselves to the Lord Governor with eleven braves, a woman and a boy.
27 Nothing new occurred.
28 The same. The guard of the mount was relieved. Four of the broken muskets, that had been repaired by order of the Governor, were delivered to the troops. Of the four remaining, three belonged to the party from Trinidad and one to Captain Don Luciano.
29 The Indian Chief that they call El Negretto[the little black one] with seven braves, eight women and two children all of the Bidais Nation, presented themselves to the Governor.
30 Nothing new occurred. The Governor assisted in the passing of a review of the armament, uniforms, equipment and mounts. There was one cartridge box with fifteen cartridges missing (which a corporal in the militia of the cavalry lost), six lances broken, eight pairs of shoes worn out, sixty-seven cartridges which the corporal Pedro Grande and two soldiers of La Bahía lacked from the complement of forty per individual, because they did not bring them from where they were sent.
1 The Indian Chief Chinchimastabe with eight braves, two women, three children all Choctaw presented himself to the Lord Governor.
2 Two Alabama Indian Chiefs, Demadalla Shefanimantela and the other Tastona Tiguichico, presented themselves to the Governor. They came with twenty-one braves, ten women, and one boy. They presented themselves richly adorned and painted with many colors which had the effect of demanding our attention [lit. their endorsement].
3 Nothing new occurred. At five in the afternoon our troops practiced drills and marksmanship, assisted by His Lordship, the Governor. Today gifts were given to the Choctaws. Seven braves, three women and one child of the Alabama Nation presented themselves to the Governor.
4 The guard of the mounts was relieved. Gifts were given to the Alabama Indians.
5 Nothing new occurred.
6 At three in the afternoon a special courier left for Trinidad. This same day the Governor went out accompanied by the officers and citizenry to inspect the areas he had missed on his reconnaissance of the twenty-second past. At seven that evening a special dispatch arrived from Béxar brought by two soldiers from the post at Trinidad.
7 The guard of the mounts was relieved. Nothing new occurred.
8 No news.
9 At one in the afternoon two soldiers from Trinidad arrived carrying special dispatches for the Governor. At 6:15 a special courier departed for Trinidad and Béxar.
10 Nothing new occurred.
11 At 12:15 Cadena, a Tonkawa Indian, presented himself with his company of eleven braves, four women and a boy to speak to the Governor.
12 No news. José Flores, the soldier from the Alamo Company, was set at liberty by order of the Governor.
13 The guard of the mount was relieved. At one this afternoon a soldier from Trinidad, acting as a special courier, presented himself and several dispatches to the Governor. He reported that he had left his companion by the way because his horse had become exhausted. The companion and horse arrived at 5:30.
14 The Tonkawa Indians returned. They had already been given gifts. There was with them a corporal and two soldiers of the escort.
15 At 8::15 a corporal and thirteen of those of the detachment at Trinidad presented themselves to the Lord Governor. It is by his order that they have come to this post to join with our party.
16 The guard of the mounts was relieved. It rained very hard all day. Twenty broken lances were repaired by order of his Lordship, the Governor.
17 Nothing new occurred. The rain continued.
18 Nothing new occurred. The water continues.
19 The post separated itself from a party that is preparing to depart with Captain Don Luciano. At noon the Tejas Indian Chief, Tavian, presented himself to the Governor. In his company were thirteen braves, six women, three children and a Caddo, who had joined them. At three o'clock five Ayses Indians with nine women and ten children of all classes presented themselves to the Governor.
20 At eight-fifteen Captain Don Luciano Garcia, Alférez Don Vicente Tarín, a sergeant, two corporals, twenty-six soldiers belonging to the escort party, besides the picket which was added from Trinidad of one corporal and thirteen soldiers, a total of forty-five men including the two officers were sent out, by order of his Lordship the Governor, to the village of the Tahuyases. The Tonkawa Indian, Marcos,who came with the picket from Trinidad, went as guide. They were accompanied by an citizen of this village called Dilla.
21 Without news.
22 At nine in the morning a soldier from the Sabine post presented himself. He brought with him two deserters from the United States that had been discovered by his commandant during a scouting expedition.
23 Nothing new occurred. After a very heavy rain storm, a special courier went out toward Trinidad and Béxar.
24 At six-fifteen a special courier arrived from Bexar presenting himself to the Lord Governor. He was conducted by two soldiers from Trinidad. The guard of the mount was relieved.
25 No news occurred. It rained all during the day-light hours. There was high water and continuing rain during the night.
26 Without news. Today the commandant of the post ordered the brand of a horse that had died. It belonged to the soldier, Blas Esparsa of the Company of La Bahía.
27 No news occurred. A Keechie Indian presented himself to the Governor.
28 The guard of the mounts was relieved.
29 No news occurred.
30 No news occurred. It has rained all day.
31 The same.
1 The guard of the mounts was relieved. It rained all day.
2 No news occurred.
3 The same
4 The same
5 The guard of the mounts was relieved.
6 No news occurred.
7 At 8:15 we left this village headed toward the town of Trinidad. In our company was the Reverend Father Fray José María Huerta. Sergeant Manuel Chapa, who united with our party, and who came here with the small assembly of the militias, left provisions at this detachment and at Trinidad. A corporal and four soldiers left from the escort of this company. At 12:15 we arrived at the Barr Ranch, where we ate. The escort continued on and we arrived at the Angelina River about 1:45. A horse belonging to Blas Esparsa of the Company of La Bahía, became exhausted and was left beside the road. We found this river [the Angelina] swollen. We immediately began to build a bridge of timbers and started to cross. This was at 5:30. At 6:45 we left. We spent the night at Macho Creek, where we stopped at 8:45. A load that remained [from crossing]was lost. At daybreak the next day the mule arrived with its load.
8 We left at 6:15. At ten we crossed the Neches River and at a small clearing by the lake we stopped to eat. There we encountered Alférez Archiniega, who was on his way to Nacogdoches. Three soldiers, with our men, returned with him from the post. An equal number, going with him to Trinidad, returned with our party. We left there at two. We spent the night at the Nogales arriving there at 6:20. We encountered Lieutenant Amador who was on his way to Nacogdoches.
9 We left at 6:05. At 11:25 we stopped to eat on Mustang Prairie. We left at two. At four we arrived at the Barr Ranch. Sergeant Chapa continued on with his Lordship the Governor and the escort. The father and I went to the town of Trinidad accompanied by four soldiers.. After we had traveled a distance, we encountered two soldiers who were carrying mail for Nacogdoches and special dispatches for the Governor. After they were given into his Lordship's hand, the two soldiers continued on their way.
10 At 10:30 Chapa left with the escort to this village, without news and only brief mention in said village.
11 A Bidais Indian Chief called "Cupin the Cripple" with his entourage of forty-three braves, forty-three women and twenty-four children of all kinds presented themselves to His Lordship, the Governor.
12 Gifts were given to the Bidais. At twelve-thirty the Chief of the Keechies, named Chacho, came alone presenting himself to the Lord Governor. He spoke briefly with his Lordship and left straightaway.
13 His Lordship ordered that we were to cross the river with the equipment and in like fashion the mounts. This was done with the great loss of the mule belonging to Joaquin de los Angles a soldier of the company of Béxar.
14 At five minutes before seven, we set out towards Béxar leaving in this post a corporal and a soldier from Nacogdoches that previously rejoined the escort and left with a corporal and ten soldiers of this post. The Governor's horse and the rest of the useless horses that we left to the Commandant of this post were delivered to us. There was nothing to add except that a mule that had been maimed by a gun shot was left with the Commandant. At 10:30 there was a very heavy thunderstorm, but it didn't stop us from marching. The storm persisted for two and three-quarter hours and continued from mid-day until sunset. At 2:45 we stopped at Los Nisperitos to eat, staying there one hour and nineteen minutes. We continued on to spend the night at Leona Creek. At 6:15 we stopped there for the night. There were several cloudburst. Three soldiers of the Béxar Company, coming from Nacogdoches, joined with us, one from the Alamo[Company] with his family.
15 We didn't leave until 10:30 because it was raining at sunrise. At 3:30 we crossed the Navasota, where we stopped to eat. We set out again at five minutes before six. At 8:07 we stopped on the Corpus Christi. This afternoon we encountered four Tejas Indians who were leading some wild ponies.
16 At 6:25 we set out. A cunning horse belonging to a soldier in the Trinidad Company broke and they were unable to catch him. Upon being saddled, the horse of Joaquin Angles broke the paling and fled with the halter. Three soldiers went in search of them, but were hindered because of the density of the nearby forrest. At 8:18 we crossed Tinajitas. At 12:45 we arrived at the Brazos finding both [rivulets] swollen. We crossed the left rivulet on horseback. We proceeded to cross the right immediately, working the entire afternoon, unable to contain the remaining post.
17 At five, we began to take the mounts and mule train across. At 9:00 we set out to take the mounts across without incident, although there was considerable swimming. In this post there remained to the Commandant a maimed mule belonging to the Governor and to him we gave the horse that we had left when we passed. At 10:20 we crossed Seco Creek. At 11:40 we crossed the Nuncio Creek where we caught up with the Tonkawa Chief, Arocha, and in his company twenty braves(he said thirteen)who had remained behind maintaining their horses so that they could intercept us. At 1:15 we stopped to eat at the Eel, since we had given gifts to these Tonkawas. At five minutes until five we left. At seven we stopped on the Olmos, where we spent the night.
18 At 6:25 we set out. At 8:30 we crossed the Ayles Creek. At 10:30 we stopped on the Mare's Creek where we encountered Captain Don Agabo de Ayala, who was going to Trinidad. At two we set out again. This afternoon the sun was very strong on us. At 4:30 we stopped at the rancherias where we spent the night.
19 At 6:15 we set out. At 8:30 we crossed Agua Dulce. At 11:45 we arrived at the Colorado which we found swollen. At 1:00 we began crossing on the ferry boat with the equipment. At 5:25 we concluded this operation, setting out again at 6:30. Seven of the soldiers from Trinidad remain sick. We spent the night on the banks of the marsh. At 9:00 two soldiers of the San Marcos Detatchment presented themselves to the Governor placing into his hand the mail and dispatches they had carried. Afterward they proceeded to their destination.
20 We left at 5:30. At 8:17 we crossed the Lobanillo. At 11:15 we stopped to eat on the reparo[retreat] of Don Felipe. At 3:18 we set out. At 4:45 we stopped on the Biznaga where we slept. This night we all slept guarding the horses which were tied because of the great number of mustangs.
21 We left at 6:20. At 8:15 we crossed Olmitos Creek. At 10:28 we arrived at San Marcos where we spent the night.
22 At 1:00 in the morning his Lordship, the Governor and Father Huerta left for Béxar escorted by a corporal and six soldiers. At 6:30 I left with the three, leaving in San Marcos the seven soldiers of the Colorado Detachment and also an equal number of those from this town. At 10:28 we crossed the Guadalupe River, where we left a militia soldier sick with fever and took two soldiers of this post with us. At 2:30 we stopped at Cibolo Creek, where I spent the night.
23 We left at 5:17 and from this place the seven soldiers of San Marcos returned and only the two from Guadalupe continued with us. At 10:30 we entered the plaza of Béxar where we delivered to the Lord Governor his coach and equipment. He ordered that his equipage and the rest of the herd of horses be separated and that the two soldiers from the Post of Guadalupe return to their station. The rest will retire to their quarters and the three soldiers and one corporal that arrived here from Trinidad, retire to the militia quarters where this operation concluded. I retired to my house in San Fernando de Béxar, June 23, 1810.
Isidro de la Garza (rubric)
Provided courtesy of Randall Tarin from the files of Alamo de Parras
New Spain: Kingdom of
SONS OF DEWITT COLONY TEXAS
© 1997-2000, Wallace L. McKeehan, All Rights Reserved.