The Z and ZA above are cattle brands Z-1 and Z-2 registered to Adam Zumwalt in Gonzales 5 Jan 1830 and 3 May 1834, respectively. One was probably assigned for "Red" Adam Zumwalt Sr. described here and the other for his minuteman cousin "Black" Adam Zumwalt Jr.
The Zumwalts of Alsace, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri. "Red" Adam Zumwalt Sr. was born 1 February 1790 in Virginia (probably Frederick or Pendleton County) to parents John D. Zumwalt (ca. 1724-1851) and Elizabeth Conrad. His father, John Zumwalt, was the son of Alsace-Lorraine immigrant Johann Wilhelm Andres (Andrew) Zumwalt (ca. 1698-1765) and wife Ann Regina who arrived in the port of Baltimore, MD in 1737. Immediate family members migrated sequentially to Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri. John Zumwalt served with brothers Jacob, Adam and Christopher under Capt. John McCoy in the Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary War and on 10 October 1774 he was wounded in the arm in the Battle of Point Pleasant. John Zumwalt was the last of six sons of immigrant Andrew Zumwalt to eventually immigrate to the St. Charles District of the Louisiana District of the Indiana Territory, later St. Charles County, Missouri. He apparently remained in Virginia when other siblings moved to the Kentucky frontier prior to moving to Missouri. He and his family moved to the St. Charles District in 1806 where he received land grant no. 1206 for 640 acres in Darst Bottom. On 15 Aug 1808, Nathan Boone sold his interest in Boone Salt Lick in HowardCo, MO to John D. Zumwalt and Alexander Murdock, who lived near the Boones in Matson, MO. The Bill of Sale was issued in Femme Osage and Daniel Boone, Nathans father, signed as witness. The Boone Salt Lick was the beginning of the famous California Overland, Santa Fe and Oregon Trails. In 1819, sons of John and Elizabeth Conrad Zumwalt, Andrew and "Red" Adam Zumwalt, owned property in Femme Osage and Darsts Bottom. The tag "Red" was probably never used by Adam Zumwalt in his lifetime, but assigned by recordkeepers and historians to distinguish him from his prominent and younger cousin in the DeWitt Colony, "Black" Adam Zumwalt Jr. The tag Sr. was probably adopted by him for the same purpose (he had no sons named Adam) since he referred to himself as "Adam Zumwalt Senr." in his will in 1845.
From Missouri to the DeWitt Colony. Adam Zumwalt married Nancy Elizabeth Caton (1795-1886) on 6 May 1813 in St. Charles County, Missouri. The family of nine arrived in the DeWitt Colony at the mouth of the Lavaca River from New Orleans in the same period as the five related extended families of Burket, Kent and Zumwalt in 1829-1830. Adam Zumwalts daughter, Elizabeth Zumwalt Mitchell, related an arrival scene to her daughter that was very similar to that related by Nathan Boone Burkett, son of Adam Zumwalt's cousin Mary Ann Zumwalt (Burket):
The account above citing 1828 and arrival dates in land archives, although imprecise, suggest that "Red" Adam Zumwalts family arrived before the David Burket family and the other Zumwalt and Kent families who arrived around Jun 1830. Land grant records indicated that Adam Zumwalt, married with nine persons (seven children, two males), arrived in the DeWitt Colony 20 May 1829 and was granted a league and labor of land on 28 Jan 1830. On 10 Aug 1831, Adam Zumwalt petitioned as a farmer for title of his labor of 177 acres located just south of and abutting on the Gonzales town tract with the southern boundary on the Guadalupe River (Burket-Zumwalt-DeWitt Cluster). His land was between tracts granted to Green DeWitt, Samuel Highsmith, James Gibson and Esther Berry on the west, David Burket, Charles Braches and Green DeWitt on the east and Francis Berry, John Oliver and Green DeWitt to the south. The tract was surveyed by Byrd Lockhart and was described as "situated in the proximity of Gonzales on the northeast side of the Guadalupe.....north to the boundary of the town tract......following the meanders of the River upward to the place where it began
On 15 Nov 1831, Adam Zumwalt as a breeder of stock petitioned Commissioner Jose Navarro for title to his league of 4428 acres in current Gonzales County. The league is about 6 miles north of Gonzales on the east bank of the San Marcos River abutting on the south on the boundary of the town tract.
On 3 Oct 1834, he was deeded lots 5 and 6 in block 11 of inner Gonzales town by alcalde J.C. Davis. The land was appraised at $15. In 1841 Adam Zumwalt received a land certificate for 320 acres from the Republic of Texas for service from June through September of 1836. The 320 acre plot abutted on the west border of the James Roney league east of the Gonzales town tract.
Seven children, Mahala, Elizabeth, Caroline, Adaline, Emaline, Jesse Caton and John Henry, were born in Missouri. Three were born in Texas: William Christopher, Harvey Griswold and Nancy. Their births are recorded in the Family Bible of Red Adam Zumwalt Sr.
Oct 1814 St. CharlesCo, MO-24 Oct 1844 GonzalesCo, TX
Eli and Elizabeth Zumwalt Mitchell. Eli Mitchell was born in Turkey Foot Township, later called Ursina, Somerset County, Pennsylvania. On December 8,1933 his daughter, Nora Mitchell Bright, told the following account to her granddaughter, Lenore Bright, who typed it as a permanent record:
"My father, Eli Mitchell, came from Pennsylvania to Texas in 1824. He was twice married to Elizabeth Zumwalt, first by bond October 5, 1833 and later by an alcalde on May 28, 1838. Father gave a bond of one thousand dollars signed by witnesses, which he was to forfeit if he was not married by an alcalde when he had the opportunity. On the arrival of an alcalde, several couples went together and were remarried, No protestant minister was allowed to officiate or preach in Texas. They had religious services in secret. The valley south of town was originally owned by Eli Mitchell. His property extended from St. Vincent Street on the north to the bridge road on the west, formerly the road to DeWitt's ferry. It was from his corn field that Texas' first volunteer army was rationed. The Mexicans sent an unmounted cannon to Gonzales to protect the people from the Indians. It was placed in the fort and when demanded by Mexico, it was buried. Later they heard that the Mexicans were coming to take it by force, so they dug it up and mounted it on two wheels of my father's wagon and went to meet the enemy. When they met, the battle of Gonzales was fought, the first shot being fired by Eli Mitchell from the little cannon. Knowing the enemy was coming in such numbers that they could not hold the cannon, they threw it into the river. It is believed that the walnut wheel Mr. Compton found was my father's wagon wheel. His wagon was made in the shop here from the walnut trees which were plentiful in the river bottom. When the command came from General Houston to vacate before night, that he was going to burn the town, Father built a cart on the other two wheels. In this cart he took his wife and two children on the Runaway Scrape. Those children died at San Felipe on their way back. My father died in 1870 at his home in Gonzales and was buried by the Masonic Lodge of which he was a charter member."
Eli Mitchell, born September 15, 1797, died April 9, 1870, was the son of Lewis Mitchell and Rhoda Abrams and was of Irish descent. Asa and William Mitchell went to Texas in 1822 with Stephen F. Austin. In 1824 Eli followed his brothers, settling first at San Felipe. He arrived in Gonzales in 1828. In Pennsylvania Eli Mitchell married Sarah Olivet Skinner. A son, Jackson (September 18, 1817-October 28, 1891) married Catherine Rush (December 26,1818-December 25, 1895). They remained in Pennsylvania and raised a family there.
Elizabeth Zumwalt (July 22,1816-July 12, 1889), Eli's second wife, was the daughter of Adam and Nancy Caton Zumwalt, original settlers of DeWitt's Colony. Eli and Elizabeth Mitchell had nine children: Otho Z. (August 4, 1840-December 15, 1863); Laura Erline (November 12, 1842-October 9, 1923) married first John Ford August 12, 1862, married second Joseph Ford December 5, 1867, John's brother; Nancy Ann (April 21,1845-May 16,1915); Chauncy Abrams (December 12, 1847-December 5, 1919) married Annie Parker September 5, 1877; Nora Rhoda (February 17, 1850-April 22, 1941) married February 14, 1871 William Josiah Bright; Eli William (February 7, 1852-1932) married Mary S. Green in Lampasas; Elizabeth Jane, Caroline and John Quincy died in infancy. Returning to Gonzales after the Runaway Scrape, Eli and Elizabeth Mitchell rebuilt their home and he became active in the government of the town. Minutes of the Ayuntamiento (city council) of Gonzales for 1834 listed him as second regidor and the following year as first regidor. Eli Mitchell was a scholarly man and had valuable books in his library. Some of his books, including his Bible, were in the Gonzales Museum in 1984. His children graduated from the old Gonzales College and Otho Mitchell was librarian and taught at the college. Audrey Bright Collins. (From The History of Gonzales County, Texas. Reprinted by permission of the Gonzales County Historical Commission).
The family is listed in the 1850 census of GonzalesCo in the Town of Gonzales: Mitchel, Eli, 48, m, $4,000, Penn; Mitchel, Elizabeth, 33, f, Mo; Mitchel, Othe, 10, m, Texas; Mitchel, Laura E., 7, f, Texas; Mitchel, Nancy, 5, f, Texas; Mitchel, Chancy, 3, m, Texas; Mitchel, Narah, 4/12, f, Texas. Eli Mitchell is considered one of the founders of the Masonic Order in Texas. As Gonzales county tax assessor and collector, he appears on many documents from the county as exampled by the one below in which he signed a receipt to Harrison Askey for taxes.
Eli Mitchell's brother, Asa Mitchell, was a veteran of the battle of San Jacinto serving as second Sargent in Company B, First Regiment of Texian Volunteers under Capt. Richard Roman. He was one of the first Austin colonists (Old 300) and first settled at Velasco, receiving a land grant in current BrazoriaCo 7 Aug 1824. His cattle pen adjoined the government fort at the mouth of the Brazos River. He participated in the Battle of Velasco in 1832 and was a delegate to the independence consultation of 1835 in San Felipe from the municipality of Washington. His son Nathan Mitchell was in Capt. Hill's company at San Jacinto. Asa Mitchell moved to San Antonio in 1844 where he died in 1865. He had children Nathaniel and Caroline (m. Rev. R.H. Belvin) by first wife Charlotte Woodmancy who died in 1834. By his second wife he had children Hiram A., Laura (m. William Joyce), Medora, Asa J., Emily and Wallace. Mitchell County is named in honor of Eli and Asa Mitchell.
19 Aug 1818 St. CharlesCo, MO-3 Oct 1895 GonzalesCo, TX
26 Dec 1820 St CharlesCo, MO-8 May 1902
1850 census of GonzalesCo, Town of Gonzales:
The photo from the files of Zelma Tyree Richardson, a descendant of Adam Zumwalt Sr., is believed to be William Christopher Zumwalt at left with either sister (seated on his left), Caroline Burnam and her children, Sara, Mary and John, or Adaline House and her children, Matilda, Diana and Harvey. Inscribed on the back of the photo by daughter of William Christopher and Letsie Weems Zumwalt was the words "Papa---Aunt and children."
The Gonzales Ayuntamiento. Land commissioner Jose Antonio Navarro appointed an unofficial ayuntamiento for Gonzales in Nov 1832. It consisted of Ezekiel Williams, alcalde; Winslow Turner, first regidore; Silas Fuqua, second regidore; and Stephen Smith, syndico procurador. The ayuntamiento served until members were elected officially as prescribed by the Colonization Laws of Coahuila and Texas. The municipal leaders appointed Adam Zumwalt and Lewis D. Sowell tellers for the official election around the first of the year. On 1 Feb 1835 "Red" Adam Zumwalt and his neighbor and cousin by marriage David Burket voted in the election of delegates for representatives from the Municipality of Gonzales to the Texas Independence Convention at Washington-on-the-Brazos.
Gonzales Merchant and Hotelier-The Runaway Scrape & Return. By 1836, "Red" Adam Zumwalt had established a residence and business in the inner part of Gonzales village proper. He appeared to be much more a town citizen and businessman than in contrast to his cousin "Black" Adam Zumwalt from the Lavaca River area of the colony who was involved in local defense of the area as a minuteman. Adam Zumwalts residence and kitchen which was a sort of boarding house/hotel and restaurant of the period was one of the prominent 32 structures in Gonzales town in Mar 1836 on St. James Street facing the Municipal Plaza. Northwest of his establishment was the putative grog shop "Luna" and just southwest was the Winslow Turner Hotel. On 29 February 1836, following instructions from his father Andrew Kent who had departed with the Gonzales Relief Force to the Alamo in San Antonio, David Boyd Kent moved his mother Elizabeth Zumwalt Kent and his 9 brothers and sisters into Gonzales from their lower Lavaca River homestead. The family stayed with Elizabeths first cousin "Red" Adam Zumwalt and family at the boarding house and kitchen where Kent daughter Mary Ann described sleeping on the floor where they could hear the big guns of the Alamo siege all the way from San Antonio. Gonzales town was bustling with families, including those like the Kents whose heads had departed in relief of the Alamo, had come in from the outlying areas for security. On 6 Mar the Alamo fell and word began reaching Gonzales causing panic and preparations among the residents for flight to safety out of the path of Santa Annas advancing army. On 13 Mar General Houston ordered the evacuation of Gonzales and the town was put to the torch by his rear guard under Capt. Sharpe. At dawn 14 Mar, only Adam Zumwalt's kitchen and Andrew Ponton's smokehouse were recognizable of the over 32 structures that were present a week earlier. "Red" Adam Zumwalt along with in-law David Burket and David Boyd Kent assisted the evacuation of Gonzales families including their own east toward the Sabine River on what is known as the Runaway Scrape. Similar to his Zumwalt, Burket and Kent relatives, Adam Zumwalt and family returned to the Gonzales area about 1837 or 1838 to rebuild their lives and the former DeWitt Colony under the Republic of Texas. Adam and Nancy Zumwalt had an additional girl, Nancy, born in 1839 after the return who died at age 14. Adam put up tents and temporary structures where his house and kitchen stood before the burning of Gonzales until he could build a more permanent structure. He is believe to have provided housing and meals for numerous returning settlers while they rebuilt their homesteads and businesses that had been destroyed by both Houstons army and the Mexican Army who moved through the area on the way from the Alamo to San Jacinto. It is believed also at this time that the family began to spend considerable time in developing farm and ranch on their league north of Gonzales on the San Marcos.
Real Estate and Land Transactions. On 23 Apr 1838 Joseph Smith of GonzalesCo posted a $700 bond to insure title of 379 acres, which was part of his headright league he had assigned to Adam Zumwalt. On 30 Sep of 1838, Smith sold the acreage to Adam Zumwalt that was on Peach Creek about 10 miles east of Gonzales. On 9 Sep 1847, 320 acres of the land was transferred to daughter Edeline House. In the Gonzales town minutes of 11 Jan 1841, Adam Zumwalt was denied a petition to cut as much rail timber on the town tract as had been appropriated from his league of land to build a fence on the town tract. On 11 Jun 1841, Adam deeded daughter Caroline Burnham a tract of 320 acres on the northeast bank of the San Marcos River, part of his headright league. On 6 Sep 1842, he bought at a public sale for $57, lots 1, 2, 4 and 5 in block 31 just east of Military Square in the town of Gonzales. On 2 Oct 1843, he transferred 329 acres of his headright league on the east bank of the San Marcos to daughter Mahala Crawford, the part of the league, which was bounded on the south by the 320 acres deeded to daughter Caroline Burnham. On 24 Apr 1846, Adam Zumwalt transferred 600 acres on the northeast bank of the San Marcos adjoining the town tract of Gonzales on the north and the river on the lower corner, which included part or all of his labor of land, to son Jesse Zumwalt. On 28 Jul 1846, he deeded 600 acres each to children William C., Harvey G., Nancy C. and Emeline Darst. On 17 May 1847, Adam Zumwalt sold his town lots 1 and 2 in block 31 to Felix Chenault for $60. On 12 Jun 1849, he transferred to daughter Caroline Burnham a labor of land on Peach Creek about 15 miles east of Gonzales (survey 44, class no. 4, Brushy Creek). This tract "Red" Adam Zumwalt received for service in the Federalist Army of the Republic of Texas for the period 6 Jun to 6 Sep 1836 (Land grant certificate in the Land Archives of the State of Texas, Austin, TX). On 16 Nov 1849 he sold Gonzales town lots 1, 2, 5, 6 in block 11 on which his boarding house and kitchen stood prior to 1836 to W.V. Collins for $4000. The block was later the site of the Keyser House and then the Plaza Hotel in Gonzales, essentially a site for the Gonzales hotel and restaurant business since 1836 into the mid-19th century.
Republic of Texas, Gonzales County. I, Adam Zumwalt, Senr. of said county, being of sound mind, but infirm & feeble in health, do make & ordain this to be my last will & testament. I give to my wife all my work oxen & Horses except two colts, and one third of the balance of my Stock; also all my household & Kitchen furniture & farming utensils, tools, etc. Also one half of a debt due by W.J. Riddle, the other half belongs to my son Jesse. I will give to her all my Negro property during her lifetime, and the use & enjoyment of my residence, either to cultivate or rent out to aid her in making a support. I give & bequeath to each of my Six children herein named to wit, Jesse, Emaline, John, William, Harvey & Nancy an equal Share of all the League of land on which I now reside, except what has been deeded off by me, to be given off to them as they respectively become of age; Jesse to have the privilege of selecting his share either on the upper or lower line. I give to each of my Daughters Mahala & Caroline (to each of whom I have already given 320 acres), a sufficiency out of my patented Lands to make their Shares of Land equal to the shares of the six children heretofore named---To my other children not already named I give & bequeath all the balance of my unpatented lands, they paying all further expenses of clearing them out. I give to my daughter Emaline & son Harvey, each one of the colts heretofore reserved. I give to my two sons Jesse & John the privilege of selling all the corn now on hand, except a sufficiency to support my family until another crop is made & appropriate the money to their own use. After giving my wife one third of my stock, I desire that the balance be sold if necessary to pay my just debts, which consist so far as I now remember of the following to wit the note of twelve dollars to C. Braches, given by Mr. Burnham, which am to pay-one note to Threadgill & James, for Thirty one dollars balance of four dollars to D.C. Vanderlip when the suit of W.W. Smith is decided after which I wish the remainder of my stock equally divided among all my children. I wish my Town property consisting of Eight lots, and my Labor adjoining Town tract, to be sold by my Executor at such time as he in his Judgment may deem most advisable to a good sale within five years, and the Proceeds equally divided among all my children; and until it is sold I want it rented out & the profit divided among all. In the bequests of this will, I desire the children of my daughter Mahala to receive the portion to which she would be entitled if living. I desire my young children all to live with their mother until they respectively become of age & that she have the raising control & management of them in the same manner I would have myself were I living. I appoint my son Jesse the Executor of this my last will & testament, and it is my desire that no further action be had on this will in the Probate Court, than its proof & registration. It is my further will that my Negro property after the death of my wife shall be sold & the proceeds equally divided among all my children, & should there be any other property or debts due me not heretofore, mentioned, I desire it to be divided among all my children. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand & Seal this 3rd day of February 1845. Signed & Sealed in presence of D.S.H. Darst and William E. Jones (Jesse Zumwalt resigned as Executor and David S.H. Darst replaced him in that capacity).
The Adam Zumwalt League, Old Slayden & the Zumwalt Cemetery. [Photo: San Marcos River at the Adam Zumwalt League. Click on photo for enlargement and more]. In the 1850 Census of GonzalesCo, Adam and family Elizabeth, Jesse b. KY, Wm. b. KY, Henry b. TX, Nancy b.TX with assets of $2000 were listed living on their league near the Old Slayden Community in the Guadalupe River District. The listing of Kentucky as birthplace of Jesse Caton and William Christopher is almost certainly in error since the family was in St. CharlesCo, MO at the time of Jesses birth in 1824 and in the DeWitt Colony in 1832 at the time of Williams birth. "Red" Adam Zumwalt Sr. died at home on his league on 9 Mar 1853. His will was proved 1 Nov 1853. By the time of his death, youngest daughter Nancy Zumwalt had died and the probate court ordered sell of her 600 acres. Widow Nancy Elizabeth Caton Zumwalt bought the land on 30 Aug 1854 for $4.25 an acre. Nancy Elizabeth Caton was the daughter of Jesse and Esther Sparks Caton. The Catons came from Kentucky to the present site of Marthasville in Warren County, Missouri in 1811 and had children Noah, Jonas, Jesse Jr., Elizabeth, Nancy, Jemima, Mahala, Rebecca, Fannie and Hester. The Catons were close associates and intermarried with the Bryan, Callaway and Boone families, all early pioneers of the Territory of Missouri from KY. Esther Sparks sister, Elizabeth, married Henry Bryan. Their children were Joseph, Susan, Johanna, Rebecca, Elizabeth, Mary, Cynthia, James, Esther and John Wesley. Nancy Caton Zumwalt's sister Elizabeth married John B. Callaway, the oldest son of Jemima Boone Callaway, daughter of Daniel Boone. In 1868, Nancy Elizabeth Caton Zumwalt died intestate. She had previously conveyed 200 of the 600 acres originally conveyed to daughter Nancy which she bought back after Adam's death to son William C. Zumwalt. Of the remaining 400 acres, she donated 1 acre for a church and school and 4 acres for the Zumwalt Cemetery. On 28 Apr, the remaining acreage was distributed among her heirs. Adam, his wife Nancy Elizabeth Caton, several children and numerous descendants are buried in the Zumwalt Cemetery on his original grant of land near the old Slayden community.
According to Ms. Riley Zumwalt, wife of Riley Zumwalt, son of Harvey G. Zumwalt who was the son of "Red" Adam Zumwalt, the four graves of Adam, Nancy and two children (possibly Nancy and John H.) were at one time within a rock wall built by Adam. Henry Zumwalt (Riley Zumwalt's brother) permitted neighbor Charlie Brothers to use the stones for a well. The site can be found by traveling north on Hwy 183 from Gonzales exactly 6.3 miles from the Hwy 183 or US90 junction (business or main) to dirt county road 232 going west. County road 232 is 1.7 miles north of the turn off to the east to McKellar Cemetary and 0.6 miles north of Canoe Creek, which crosses Hwy 183. Exactly 0.7 miles from Hwy 183 on county road 232, a dirt and grassy road leads south to the Zumwalt Cemetery which is surrounded by a chain fence. At the southwest corner of the turnoff from county road 232 is thought to be the site of the Old Baptist Church and school on the land donated by Nancy Zumwalt. Descendants have placed a permanent memorial marker in the cemetary.
SONS OF DEWITT COLONY TEXAS