SONS OF DEWITT COLONY TEXAS
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Coahuila y Tejas-Index | Stephen F. Austin

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Some Difficulties of a Texas Empresario

Aylett C. Buckner to Austin 10 Jun 1825 Sir I appears that I am called here for undertaking one of the most just causes in my opinion imaginable that which is not only admitted of under free Governments but even under the most despotic Governments Now sir as it respects myself I disregard rigid measures but Sir you probably are not apprised of the bad effects it may have I do assure you Sir it will enrage the people beyond all calculation and it will be the downfall of your---self and I believe the Colony---These are the reasons why I make the following proposition which is this That the whole colony shall be called togather and if there is a majority in favor of the petition it shall go on if not it shall fall The people in every direction have herd of your irons for my imprisonment, as it respects myself I disregard all you can do I ask no favors, but for the prosperity of the Colony is the reason why I make the above proposition It is a proposition that every man in the Colony will approve of with few exceptions AYLETT C BUCKNER Mr Austin 10th June 1825

Andrew Rabb to Austin 11 Jun 1825 Big Bernard June 11 1825 SIR Agreeably to Your summon I have proceded thus far but on account of the complaint with which I am afflicted, I am unable to ride any further: If however my evidence should be material, I shall perhaps be able in a day or two to come to Town---All I know in this case is what almost every other person knows, with, perhaps, this exception---A few days ago, when in company with Mr. Buckner, he observed, that If you prosecuted Jackson, it would only be thro malice, and that he (Buckner) would fight for Jackson as long as he had a drop of blood in his veins ANDREW RABB To Col. S. F. Austin

Austin to James Cummins 13 Jun 1825 The matter has been investigated Which induced the summons of A. C. Buckner before me, and the result of such investication has satisfied me that the acts of said Buckner which were deemed exceptionable proceeded from misconception, and the said Buckner having manifested a submission to the Laws and authorities of the Government---Therefore in order that the public may be satisfied as to the result of this matter it is directed that the whole affair be dismissed, under the belief that his deportment will be such as to merit the approbation of the authorities of the Government and the more effectually to avoid any excitement which a reference to the subject in private conversation might create it is recommended that it be totall forgotten and consigned to oblivion. San felipe de Austin 13 June 1825. STEPHEN F. AUSTIN [Rubric] To James Cummins Esqr
[On the reverse] La hospitalidad y amistad qe. bacia los extrangeros caracteriza los Mexicanos, con q. este sujeto fue tratado en lo interior, hi producido tal efecto sobre su. orgullo propio qe. piensan qe. tiene influxo pa. trastornar un Estado y ahora segun me dice el va Ilevar sus quejas al Congreso del Estado---estas consiste en esto

Austin to Jefe Politico Saucedo 15 Jun 1825 Por mi oficio fha 6 del Corriente dí parte V. S. del arresto de dos Yndividuos y en efecto les llamé delante de mi el dia 11 del presente y despues de una averiguacion de su causa parecía q estuvieron engañados por los falsos rumores y representaciones que algimos malvados han circulado tocante á las Autoridades de esta Colonia y sus facultades, y luego qe les espliqué el error qe habian cometido sumetieron enteramente á las autoridades del Gobno. y declararon q desde entonces quedarian contento y obedeciente, y en el Concepto q se debe usar de la suavidad y la razon siempre qe estas basta para mantener ó restablecer la tranquilidad les puse todos en libertad, advirtiendolos por lo futuro su conducta ha de ser enteramente arreglad.a con las leyes y con lo q exije el buen Orden y así tengo la satisfacion decir qe se ha tranquilizado este dificultad. Dios y Libertad San Felipe de Austin 15 de Junio de 1825 ESTEVAN F. AUSTIN [Rubric] Al Sor Gefe del departamento de Texas Ciudadano D José Antonio Saucedo


III. SPECIAL GRANTS.---Another cause of dissatisfaction, inseparably connected with the one just discussed, arose out of the discretionary power vested in Austin and the commissioner to make additional grants of land to such individuals as they had special reasons to favor in this manner. A large family and industrious habits frequently brought to the settler at least a double portion; special grants of five sitios were made to those who agreed to erect mills or other works of public utility; even as many as ten sitios were allotted to single families, though these larger grants were rarely made. Many of those who applied for increased grants and were refused felt that a discrimination had been made against them. A "North American frontier republican" believes that he is as good as his neighbor, and if land, or anything else, is distributed, his pride and cupidity are wounded if he does not receive what he regards as his full share. Such individuals never stopped to inquire why certain of their neighbors received more than one sitio; it was enough that Austin and the commissioner had shown favor, and not to them. Many of the disgruntled ones joined the ranks of the opposition and gave ready ear to all the damaging reports circulated as to Austin's authority. It has been noted above that in the call for a meeting made by Buckner and Jackson, one of the charges against Austin and Bastrop was that they had made larger grants to some colonists than to others.

One extreme case will suffice to show to what extent certain of these frontiersmen were willing to go in enforcing recognition of what they believed to be their rights. Jacob Betts was one of the first settlers who came to Texas and was one of those who felt that he had been discriminated against in the distribution of lands. In May, 1825, he complained to Austin as follows:

"I feel myself bound to inform you of my fealings they are Raught to the highest pitch…..I am now oferd one half of what some others are that have just arive in the Contry…..and unless I am plast on an eaqual footing with other men feel it my duty W seek redress to the last extent……I seek no privat advantage of you but Rest you asured if I Commenst with you I Leave nothing undun to the best of my skill and ability, though it is not my wish to enter into bisness of that kind it has bin my determination to seek my Redress if I distroyed the intrust of myself and every other man in this provence…..if you will give me….[naming land desired] you will find me disposed to Render my servises for the benifit of the Colony as fair as is in my power but if 1 am not satisfyed you will find I can do you or the Colony as mutch Injury as any other man though it is not my wish."

Happily there were few cases like this. Betts was conciliated in some manner, for exactly two years later, May 13, 1827, we find him the sole representative of Austin's colony, signing a treaty with the Carancahua Indians along with such men as Anastacio Bustamante, Martin de Leon, and Green Dewitt. It required great prudence, consummate tact, and perfect understanding of frontier character to deal successfully with such cases. Had Austin no other claim upon us, we should be compelled to respect him for the wisdom and good judgment he exercised in the control of that most uncontrollable class of people---the class that carry Anglo-Saxon civilization into the western wilderness. It would be too much to say that he put down all dissatisfaction; many of his colonists did not become reconciled to their leader for years; some, never. But by timely concessions in one place; by threats in another; by reason and explanation where such would be listened to; and especially by a wise and efficient administration of the affairs of the colony, he was able to blunt the edge of criticism and keep the discontented within bounds. "The reflecting and worthy part of the settlers have always adhered firmly to me throughout," he wrote to William H. Wharton in 1829, though he added that the refractory element "at times had weight enough to require humoring and management." The particular source of discontent with which we are here concerned was removed by the colonization law of March 24, 1825, which required all petitions for increased grants of land to be made to the state government.

It required considerable time, however, for the doubt as to Austin's authority to disappear. One instance will serve to show that it still existed and was even strong in 1826. Dr. Lewis D. Dayton came into the colony in the winter of 1825-6 and located some eight miles north of San Felipe. He was soon talked of as a good doctor and acquired some influence among the settlers. He took up the old cry and began anew the agitation of the matter of Austin's authority. He accused the empresario and his secretary of repressing parts of the colonization law for their own profit and of imposing on the colonists in many other ways. He was so successful in his agitation that a doggerel song which he circulated against Austin became quite popular in certain localities. It began thus:

"The first of the villains who came to this state; Was runaway Stephen F. Austin the great;
He applied to the Mexicans as I understand; And from them got permission to settle this land."

H.H. League wrote to Austin 28 Aug 1827 "....we have some little commotion amongst the people in the outsettlements of the colony---which has been got up by this man Daton that was here when you left...." On 10 Sep 1827, League writes "...The difficulty that was apprehended on account of Daton is over he has been punished and driven out of the colony. his designs on the colony was full of mischief and Rebellion and had become more formidable than any of us imagined and was On the Eave of breaking out but fortunately Over...."

Early in 1826 [probably 1828], while on a visit to the Fort settlement, Dayton was seized by William Hall and others; he was carried to San Felipe, tried before judge Lynch, and declared worthy of a coat of tar and feathers, which sentence was duly executed. He then disappeared. It should be stated in justice to Austin that he was absent when these irregular proceedings took place and afterwards was heard to express regret on account of the affair.


IV. BAD CHARACTERS.---Difficulties of another kind were those which arose from the appearance at times of criminals and bad characters in the colony. Outside of Texas, there seems to be even yet a general lack of information as to the character of the men who settled in Austin's colony. There were indeed many rude frontiersmen like Buckner, and even some like Betts, who felt that they were every inch sovereigns, and who would defend to the last breath what they believed to be their rights; but they were at least honest and their hands were not stained with crimes committed in other countries. On that point Austin's attitude was most uncompromising. "You must examine the Red River emigrants very closely," he wrote in 1823 to one of his subordinates, "and take care that no bad men get in---let us have no black sheep in our flock." Mrs. Holley said in 1836, "The empresario, General Austin, has never admitted into his Colony any man known to be of disreputable standing and has always, as far as practicable, made diligent inquiries in order to ascertain, if possible, the conduct and reputation of each applicant." Crime of any kind committed by colonists was rare. From the beginning of the settlement in January, 1822, and to December, 1824, a space of three years, there were in the whole colony no cases of homicide and only one of theft. It was by no means an infrequent occurrence that passing strangers gave trouble by theft of stock or even of other property. Sometimes these rogues were caught and in such cases it cannot be said that they were always hospitably treated by the settlers. Austin's judicial authority was not sufficient to cover such cases. He could only put the accused at hard labor until the authorities at Bexar could be heard from. He repeatedly asked for the establishment of a tribunal with jurisdiction to inflict corporal punishment upon such offenders. But the general government was slow, and no such tribunal was erected for several years. In the meantime Austin put a liberal interpretation upon his powers and himself sat in judgment on the culprits. There were no jails in the colony and it was too expensive to employ guards to watch prisoners, so, as a short way out of the difficulty, Austin introduced the whipping-post. Possibly he was stretching his authority, but he did so with the knowledge of the political chief, and, if that official did not directly encourage it, at least he winked at such an efficient method of keeping order.

As Austin was held responsible for the settlement, he was given power to reject any applicant who might present himself for admission---indeed the government strictly enjoined him not to admit any one who could not produce certificates satisfactorily proving the holder a man of good character. A few instances will suffice to show how Austin used this power. On his return from Mexico he expelled five "persons, with their families, of infamous character," who had entered Texas during his absence. A short time after, one Garner in some manner made himself obnoxious and was whipped and sent out of the colony.

Austin to Josiah Bell 6 Dec 1823 SIR, As I shall be absent about three weeks down the river I wish you to attend to the following instructions relative to new settlers. The most unequivocal evidence of character must be produced in the first place, and those who come without any recommendation and who are unknown in this country must be informed that I gave Garner ten lashes for coming here without proper recommendations and that unless they immediately depart and quit the country they will be punished. After Garner's case I am determined not to receive any one nor even permit him to remain in the colony who comes without proper recommendations, no matter what may be his appearance. Payment, must be made down by all new comers in Cash or Cattle at the rate of one Cow and Calf for a hundred acres of land, and in the same proportion for Stock Cattle I will also take negros. I wish for as many decent families as possible to settle in this place and all who do so shall have, a preference in lots and labors, there are extensive dead Cane breaks on the oposite side of the River where they can make corn easily and on this side there is fine range for cattle and hogs. You must examine the Red River emigrants very closely and take care that no bad men get in---let us have no black-sheep in our flock. Should a man of notorious bad character come in I hereby fully authorize you to whip him not exceeding fifty lashes and seize, sufficient of his property to pay a guard to conduct him beyond the Trinity River--- One example of this kind is wanting badly and after that we shall not be troubled more. Send the really good emigrants to this place they can make corn early in the Cane opposite here. Send all the rough frontiersmen, hunters, etc, etc, up the river or out on some of the creeks. [STEPHEN F AUSTIN] St. Felipe de Austin Decr. 6, 1823 J. H. Bell Alcalde of the Brazos District.

After this case was disposed of, Austin decided not to receive any person "nor even permit him to remain in the colony who comes without proper recommendations, no matter what may be his appearance." To this end, he authorized at least one of his subordinates to administer not exceeding fifty lashes to any notoriously bad character who entered the bounds of the colony, and send him under guard as far as the Trinity. The single theft mentioned above was William Fitz Gibbons and William and Peter Whitaker. The two former escaped, but Peter Whitaker was duly brought to trial. He was found guilty of having stolen four hogs; and the alcalde reported the case to Austin, with the information that Fitz Gibbons and the Whitakers were "a bad set" and deserved expulsion from the colony. Austin approved and sentence was passed upon them.

John P. Coles to Austin 31 Jan 1824 SIR I send you a Transcript of the proceedings in the case of Peter Whitaker on the 24th day of January now past James Alexander came before me and made oath that William F. Gibbon Peter Whitaker and William Whitaker had stolen Hogs from John Mitchel John Milican and Mr. Roberts sometime in the summer of 1822 and that they also had stolen three Horses from a Spaniard about the last of August 1823 upon which Information I found a warrant against the said W. F. Gibbon Peter Whitaker and William Whitaker Peter Whitaker was taken on the 26th day of January and brought to a Trial on the last day of said month W. F. Gibbons and William Whitaker not to be found said to have ran of to the United States

On the day above mentioned the last day of January the above named Peter Whitaker was Tried for the above offences he being first ask[ed] whether he was guilty or not declared that he was not guilty and was Ready for Trial Mr Alexander was introduced as an Evidence against Sd Whitaker who first being sworn to make true statements as the Law directs stated as follows that sometime in the summer of eighteen hundred and twenty-two she saw Peter Whitaker the defendant in company with W. F Gibbons and William Whitaker at one time kill 2 Hogs the property of John Mitchel and at different times Killed one other Hog belonging to John Mitchel and one belonging to John Milican and further states that she lived at the House of William F. Gibbons at the time and place where those Hogs were Killed and has an Entire Knowledge of the whole of the sircumstanees

the Evidence being herd the case were submitted to a Jury of six men who were duly qualified to Try the case the Jury found the defendant Guilty and returned a verdict as you will see accompanying this Given under my hand this 31st day of January 1824 JNO P. COLES

January 31st 1824 SIR as Respects this affair of Peter Whitaker the Evidence against him is very positive and I am fearfull that they are altogether a bad set my oppinion of the Matter is that Gibbons is very much of a thief and has perhaps been the cause of those young men getting into these bad habits he is their Step Father and has partly Raised them this young man Peter Whitaker has the appearance of an Innocent young man and appears much mortified---for my own part I feel much disposed to pity the young man tho I believe he has done Rong an order for the whole of them to leave the country Immediately perhaps would be the shortest way of Ending the Trouble he the S" Whitaker first paying all cost and charges before he should be Released JNO. P. COLES

There is also three Spanish Horses left in my possession the Horses that -were said to have been stolen tho the theft of the Horses were not proven I have not found out the Spaniard name that owns the Horses nor neither do I Know where he lives as also there is an old Rifle Gun left Here that was taken from a duchman by Gibbons the duchmans name not Known you will direct me what to do with this property the Horses and Gun as also State to me wheather Gibbons property can be taken to pay for three Hogs that were stolen. JNO. P. COLE'S

[Enclosure.] Verdict of the Jury District of Brasos Austins Colony Province of Texes Vs. William F Gibbon Peter Whitaker William Whitaker the charges exhibited against the above Named Persons were steeling of Hogs som time in the summer of 1822 as also steeling of three Horses about the first of August 1823 we find the Defendants Peter Whitaker to be Guilty of Steeling fore hogs supposed 'to be worth 10$ Dollars a peace and agreeable to Law in that Case we assess three times the value which is One Hundred and Twenty dollars The theft of the Horses were not proven the defendant paying all cost and Expence for Guarding at the rates of $2.00 for each thirty fore Hours allowing Two men to be sufficient Guard Cost as Respects his on Trial. James Whiteside James Lynch Micajah Byrd R. C. Millican. Orlando Hopkins Simon Miller Jurors January 31st 1824

John P. Coles to Austin 25 May 1824 Austins Colony Brassos District in obedience to your official order to me Directed on February 2 last to Issue a Notice to Peter Whitaker William Fitzgibbons and William Whitaker Unless they Removed with their family and Effects out of the limits of this Colony within 3 months from the date of said notice they would be liable and Penaltys noticed in said official Order a notice accordingly Issued from my office which has been Complied with in all its part within time given May the 25th 1824 JNO P COLES [Rubric] Alcalde

Such examples as these had a most salutary effect, for while they caused the criminal class to avoid the colony they had exactly the opposite effect upon honest settlers who were seeking homes for their families. When Austin turned over the government to the Ayuntamiento in 1828, that body continued the custom of investigating the character of new comers, and, on several occasions not only declined to admit questionable persons, but also expelled such old settlers as gave offense [On 4 Nov 1830, the Ayuntamiento voted to deny admission to two applicants, to expel four persons who had been in the colony for some time, and to put two others on probation, see Austin's address to Ayuntamiento from the Texas Gazette, 6 Nov 1830]. Many other instances of this purging process might be added, but enough have been mentioned to illustrate Austin’s method of dealing with such people.

One or two other cases will be cited because they involved special danger to the colony or to Austin. John Roe, of the Colorado district, had become disaffected, it seems, because he had not received what he regarded as sufficient compensation for certain services; to avenge himself he abandoned the settlement and proposed to incite the Indians to make an attack on the colonists. Here was a case in which mere expulsion from the colony brought no advantage, and Austin recommended imprisonment instead. Roe escaped but probably had little success in his designs against the settlers.

James Cummins Alcalde to Austin 22 Oct 1825. DEAR SIR Enclosed I send you the articals of agreement between John Roe and John Tumlinson Roe says that he has papers from the governor of this State to [hold] his land for his services on any unapropriated Lnad in this province. he says he will lay all his papers before you and I want you to deside on the Case we must have the Land Called for in the artical or what we have paid for it or the Value thereof. Though you will decide as you think proper when you see all the papers---but I do not believe he has one dollar to pay back for what he has recd---yours Respectfully Jas Cummins [Rubric] Oct 22, 1825 [Addressed:] Colo Stephen F. Austin San Felipe de Austin

John Roe to Austin May 5th 1826. Colonel STEVAN F. AUSTIN Please Pay The bearer Joshua Parker the Sum Due me for bringing in the tonkaway Indians and oblige yours JOHN ROE [Rubric] [On reverse] Recd' of S. F. Austin twenty dollars on the within order San Felipe de Austin May 10. 1826 JOSHUA PARKER [Rubric] [On Margin] Paid order for money for bringing in the Tonkaways.

L. R. Kenny to Austin 5 May 1826. [About May 5, 1826.] Dear Sir The Bearer Roe has a despatch to the Comt. at arms I refer you to it for informn A Chocto Indian accompanies him---Roe has been of essential service in interpreting to the Alabamas and Choctaws and explaining iny views to them---he has been in my employt sevl days---and for his services Carrying this Commn etc I have promd him $20---I have paid him $2---please discharge the Balance---Hoping to meet you in Nacogdoches LAuce RICH KENNY Capt Comg Amer Vols on particular service I have pledged my work to Roe that there will be no disappt. in this payt. Lt. Colonel S. F. Austin On the road to Nacogdoches or elsewhere

Austin to Military Commandant on the Guadalupe 3 Jun 1826. He recibido noticia q. el hombre John Roe ha salido del Colorado á los Tanhuas con municiones de guerra Este hombre se ha manejado con mala fé y merece castigo. El capitan de la milicia, del Colorado en complimto con mi orn envió este Roe á traher los Tanhuas aqui para componer la dificultad q. hubo con ellos en el mes de Marzo. Vinó con los dhos Yndios y ofrecé pagarle por su trabajo la cantidad que el dho Capitan y el Alcalde del Colorado convinieron pagarle, no quiso recibirlo, y demandó de 70 á 80 pesos, por fin libró una orden contra mi en favor de Joshua Parker, y he pagado el dho Parker en conformidad con el trato hecho con Roe pero sin embargo este malvado luego q. salió de aqui entento excitar los Tanhuas á hostilizar los pobladores y á romper la paz q. existe con ellos, de esto hay pruebas suficientes. El caracter general de Roe es mala, es un hombre q. hará mucho, daño si queda en libertad y mi opinion es q. se debe hacerle preso y guardarle en carcelado por un ó dos años, porque si se le echa fuera del pais spre volvera y so juntará con los Yndios. Doy esta noticia á para su conocimto y de q. V pueda velar de la conducta de dho Roe si viene al Guadalupe. Dios y Libertad. San Felipe de Austin 3 de Junio de 1826 ESTEVAN F. AUSTIN [Rubric] Sor Comandante Militar de la Milicia de Guadalupe.

Kerr to Austin Concerning Roe and Indian Attacks on the Guadalupe 18 Jul 1826.

At times the best feeling did not exist between Austin's colony and that of Martin de Leon, which was made up of Mexicans. The enmity of this Mexican empresario was much to be feared, because the government would naturally accord him a more favorable hearing in case of a dispute or investigation than it would give a foreigner. In the spring of 1826, one McLocklin, then in de Leon's Colony, addressed charges against Austin to the political chief and was evidently supported by de Leon himself. Austin answered the charges and as to McLocklin, stated that he had formerly been a member of a gang of "picarros" on the Sabine and that "in the places where he was known it was sufficient only to pronounce his name to give an idea of all that is low and criminal in the character of man." The empresario added that McLocklin had once come to his colony, but "I ordered him to leave this jurisdiction without delay as the government had no use for such inhabitants." Austin complained bitterly against de Leon for sheltering such men and mentioned another notorious criminal who was then harbored by de Leon, "the mulatto Drake," whom Austin had previously whipped and driven from the colony. It is easy to see that even expelled criminals had the opportunity of injuring Austin and his colony.

Austin to Political Chief Saucedo 18 Mar 1826 [Austin's Blotter, as cited.] Contestacion sobre Joshua Parker En cumplimiento con el oficio de V. S. fecha 16 de febrero popo. para que el habitante de esta Colonia Parker se presente en esa capital con el cautivo que saco de los Comanches he dado la correspondiente orden ál dicho Parker incluyendole traducion certificada del citado oficio de V. S. Dios y Libertad 18 de Marzo de 1826.

Sobre McLocklin Drake y el Negro de Baret y De Leon Con el mayor sorpresa he visto por el oficio de V. S. fecha 19 de febrero---popo. que el anglo Americano Edmund McLocklin que esta abrigado en el Guadalupe por el Sor Martin de leon ha quejado que yo habia. rehusado la entrega de un Negro i pesar [de] la venta legitima y legal que presentó. En contestacion á esta queja tengo A decir primeramente que es falso---el dicho McLocklin se presentó aqui con un papel, sin ningunas de las formalidades, ni requisitos necesarios en qualquier otro pais, para una venta, legal; no fue certificada por ningun Juez, ni habia certificacion que la persona que lo firmo fue la muger ni heredero, ni pariente del difunto Barret que dejo el. negro en poder de Castleman, cuatro diferentes personas han presentado ventas para el mismo negro, cada uno dijo que la venta que el tenia fue legal, Y mi opinion es que eran todas falsas y hechos por los portadores ó sus amigos; fundo esta opinion en el caracter infame de cada una de las personas que truho las dichas ventas falsas, y en la falta total de todo requisito necesario para hacerlos legales. Edmund McLocklin es un hombre cuyo caracter es tan infame que en los lugares, onde está conocido solo basta pronunciar su nombre para dar una idea de todo que es baja y criminal en el caracter del hombre. Se abrigo por algun tiempo en los despoblados del Rio de Natchitoches cerea del punto pacan [Pecan Point], y de alli mudo y se junto con la quadrilla de picaros que habitan los margenes del Rio Sabina; vino aqui y le di orden de marcharse fuera de esta jurisdicion sin demora que el Gobierno no tenia uso para tales habitantes, dos de sus hijos fueron horeados por asaseinos segun me han dicho los que le conoce bien, y la opinion general fue que el padre merecio la misma suerte. Las otras personas que vinieron reclamar el negro fueron Compañeros y Amigos de William English y Nicholas Trammel de[l] distrito de Nacogdoches hombres que yo babia rehusado recibir en esta colonia, por el infame de sus caracteres y que todo el. mundo proclama por criminales y hombres malos. Tales son los hechos en esta materia, y tal es el sujeto McLocklin que está protejado y abrigado por Martin de Leon contrario á las leyes que prohibe que se admita tales hombres en el pais: debo observar que existe otro sujeto al lado del Sor Martin de Leon que es ladron conocido y es el mulato llamado Drake, tal vez, el Ilevara quejas contra mi por haberle castigado aqui por un Robo que hizo dandole orden al mismo tiempo salir fuera de esta jurisdicion. pena de recibir castiga corporal Quando McLocklin ó qualquier otro individuo presenta una venta legitima para el dicho Negro sera entregado y no antes, por orden mia. V. S. pueda dar la orden en la material que estima conveniente Dios y Libertad Sn F de A 18 de Marzo de 1826 Sor Gefe del Departamento C J. A Saucedo

Perhaps the instances which have been cited above may serve to convey an idea of the general character of the difficulties which Austin had to meet in the internal administration of the colony. Add to these the difficulties which grew out of the proximity of the red man and those which arose from the relations of the American colony to the Mexican government, and one's admiration of Stephen F. Austin grows constantly as he understands better how that great leader met and mastered them all.


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