There are four main branches to the Ejército Mexico
Each of these units (except for the artillery) is broken down into
- General Staff
- Operational Army
Mexican Infantry Battalions are of two kinds:
A Mexican Infantry Battalion is comprised of eight companies.These
- Permanente (Permanent or Standing or Regular Army) Battalions,
formed in 1823 and reformed in 1833). Between 1823-1833 these were
numbered, between 1833-1839 these were named in honor of the heroes
of the Mexican War for Independence.
- Activo (active or National Guard) battalions. These were named
for the geographical location in which the battalion was originally
By Regulation a Compañía consisted of a capitán (captain),
a teniente (lieutenant) two subtenientes (sub-lieutenants), a sargento
primero (first sergeant), three segundo (sergeants), eight cabos (corporals)
and 83 soldadoes (Bando: 1 Sept. 1824).
- Compañía Cazadores(roughly light infantry rifle company,
similar to the French chassueres, also called preferred company).
Used as the battalion skirmishers or flankers. Armed with the British
Baker Rifle or the British Light Infantry Musket.
- Compañía Granaderos (grenadier company). Pick troops
of the battalion used for reserves. Armed with the British East India
- Compañía Fusileros (Fusilier or line company). There
were six of these companies comprised of regular foot soldiers armed
with East India Pattern musket.
Each of the fusilero companies were to have two drummers and a fifer,
while the cazadores and granaderos were assigned three trumpeters.
The battalion staff (plana mayor) consisted of a colonel (coronel),
a lieutenant-colonel (teniente colonel), a first adjutant (primero ayudante)
two second adjutant (segundos ayudantes), two sub-adjutant (subayudantes),
a chaplain (capellán), a surgeon (cirujano), an armorer (armero),
a drum major (tambor mayor), a corporal of drummers and fifers (cabo
de tambores y pifanos) a corporal and eight pioneers ( cabo y ocho gastadores)
and 2 musicians (musicos).
The Mexican Army, from 1833-1839 consisted of ten permanente infantry
Permanente Hidalgo (named for the priest Miguel Costilla y Hidalgo)
Permanente Allende (named for Ignacio Allende)
Permanente Morelos (named for the priest José Maria Morelos)
Permanente Guerrero (named for Vicente Guerrero)
Permanente Aldama (named for Juan Aldama)
Permanente Matamoros (named for Fray Mariano Matamoros)
Permanente Abasolo (named for Mariano Abasolo)
Permanente Jimenez (named for Mariano Jimenez)
Permanente Galeana (named for Hermenegildo Galeana and his brother)
There were sixteen activo militia battalions. These were:
Activo Tres Villas
Activo San Luis Potosi
In addition there were the 3 Yucatan Battalions and the Chiapas Battalion.
There were also 13 Guarda Costa Compañías consisting
There was also a standing battalion of Zapadores (Engineers).
The Following Mexican Infantry Units Served in the 1836 Texas Campaign:
Activo San Luis Potosi
Activo Primero Mexico
Activo Tres Villas
SOCIAL AND ETHNIC BREAKDOWN
The officer corps was broken down into three basic social.ethnic groups:
It was recommended by regulation that the sub-lieutenants be recruited
from the experienced Non Commissioned Officers. Others could purchase
a commission or receive commission by attendance and graduation from the
Military Academy established at Chapultepec.
The rank and file were broken down into two basic social/ethnic groups:
There was some foreign enlistment in the ranks but not enough to make
a noticeable difference.
The Mexican Army was based on a conscript system. Volunteers could
enlist for eight year terms while draftees served ten years. Pay was
19 pesos, four reals and 9 granos per 25 day month.
Mexican Permanente Cavalry Regiments
1833-1839, Named for the Battlefields of the Wars for Independence
Mexican Cavalry Regiments at the Siege of the Alamo
Permanente Dolores Regiment
Mexican Cavalry Regiments during the Goliad Campaign
Elements of the Rio Grande Presidial Compañía
Permanente Tampico Regiment
Permanente Cuautla Regiment
Guanajuato Territorial Regiment
Victoria Guards (Carlos de la Garza's Company)
Guadalupe de los Santos Racheros
OFFICERS OF THE MEXICAN
Juan N. Almonte
Almonte, Juan N.
Division-General, Commander of the Eastern Interal Proviences.
Commanded Mexican forces in Texas from September 18-December 10, 1835.
Defeated at the battle of San Antonio de Bexar, December 10, 1835. Commanded
the first assult column at the Alamo battle. Captured at San Jacinto and
later released. Cos was born in 1800, served in the Fijo de Vera Cruz
Regiment before joining the Army of the Three Guarentees under Iturbide.
Commanded defenses south of Vera Cruz during the US invasion of 1847.
Died October 1, 1854 at Minatittan. Was Santa Anna's brother-in-law.
Colonel, commanding the Activo Battalion Toluca. Commander of the north
assult column in Alamo battle in which he was wounded in the leg. Native
of Cocila, Jalisco, born 1792. Promoted colonel in 1830. Was later commandant
general of Sonora and Sinaloa before his death in 1854.
Quartermaster General of the Ejercito de Operaciónes.
Leader of the Mexican Federalists. Was Santa Anna's vice-president
in 1832. When Santa Anna "retired", Farias assumed the presidency and
enacted a series of reforms against the upper class and the Catholic
Church, which enraged the Mexican Centralists. Santa Anna proclaimed
the Plan of Cuernavaca in 1834, which called for the removal of Farias
and the 1824 Constitution and the establishment of a centralist government.
Farias remained an active Federalist and would again assume the presidency
in 1847. Under Farias first administration, Stephen Austin was arrested
and the California missions were secularized.
Second in command of the Ejercito de Operaciónes. Born Tavello,
Italy, in Mexico since the wars for independence. Assumed command of
the Mexican Army in Texas after San Jacinto. Court-martialed and later
exonerated from wrong doing. Died July 23, 1850.
Brigadier-General commanding the First Infantry Brigade. After Alamo,
commanded division sent up Camino Real towards Bastrop and Nacogdoches.
Born 1793 in Cuba. Joined Regiment Nuevo España in 1801. Promoted
to general in 1832. Served in US-Mexican War. Died in 1848.
Colonel, adjutant for the vanguard under Sesma.
Assumed name of Juan Manuel Felix Fernandez, the first elected president
of the Mexican Republic and the only person to serve his complete term
of office. Inaugurated on October 10, 1824 with Nicolas Bravo as vice-president,
Victoria was a Federalist and under his administration, the Constitution
of 1824 was adopted. He served a four-year term.
A town in South Central Texas on the Guadalupe River now the county
seat of Victoria County. Founded in 1824 by Martin De Leon, the only
Mexican empressario, it was named for President Guadalupe Victoria.
The community supported Texas independence and grew in importance during
Pedraza, Manuel Gomez Mexican centralist who was elected president
in 1828 with Anastasio Bustamante as vice-president. Pedraza was driven
out of the country by a Federalist revolt and the congress declared
his election null and void. He was later allowed to finish the term
of Bustamente when the later was driven from office in 1832.
One of the leaders of the Mexican independence movement who had joined
with Iturbide to establish Mexican independence in 1821. Guerrero was
elected president in 1829 to replaced the removed Manuel Pedraza. A
Centralist revolt removed him from power and he was replaced by Anastasio
Bustamente. Guerrero was later captured and tried by a military court
who order his execution. Under Guerrero's administration, slavery was
Colonel, adjutant to General Gaona.
Iturbide, Agustin de
Creole Royalist Officer who in 1821 issued the Plan of Iguala uniting
Royalists and Revolutionaries under the "Three Guarantees": maintenance
of the Roman Catholic religion, establishment of an independent constitutional
monarchy and equal rights for all Spaniards and Mexicans. Iturbide was
successful in securing Mexican independence only to be made Emperor
of the short-lived Mexican Empire on July 21, 1822. Pro-republican forces
launched a revolt and forced his abdication on March 19, 1823. Exiled,
he attempted to return to Mexico only to be arrested and executed in
Tamaulipas on July 19, 1824. His remains were later moved to the Mexico
City to be buried with the other heroes of the Wars for Independence.
Captain at the rank of Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel. Zapadores Battalion
Officer on Santa Anna's staff. Produced on of three Mexican Army maps
of the Alamo during the siege. Born in 1806, helped defend Vera Cruz
from French in 1838. Died soon afterwards.
Lopez, Jos´e; Reys
Commissary Department Chief
Minon, José Vicente
Colonel, second-in-command of Morales' cazadore column in the Alamo
assault. Born in 1802 at Cadiz, Spain. Joined Mexican Independence movement.
fighting at the battles of Arroyo Hondo and Azcapotzalco. Later involved
in French Occupation of Mexico. Died in 1878.
Colonel, commanding Activo Queretero Battalion. Born 1791. Later commandant
general of the Departments of Queretero, Guanajuato and Zacatecas. Served
as Governor of Queretero. Died in 1868.
Mora, Estevan de la
Colonel, Santa Anna's staff. Killed at San Jacinto.
Colonel, rank of Bvt. General, commanding Permanente Dolores Cavalry
Regiment. Native of Esteban Panuco, Tamualipas, born 1796. Served in
US-Mexican War. Commandant-general of Zacatecas at the time of his death
Colonel, commanding Batallion Activo San Luis Potosi. Commanded the
combined cazadore company assult column at the Alamo assult. Also was
at the battle of the Coleto. Captured at San Jacinto and later released.
Born 1802 at Puebla. During the US-Mexican War, commanded the garrison
at Vera Cruz which surrendered to General Winfield Scott. Arrested for
his actions at Vera Cruz, he was held at Perote Prison until it was
captured by the Americans and then released. Died soon afterwards.
Colonel, adjutant to General Tolsa
Colonel, commanding Activo Guanajuato Battalion
Colonel, commanding Activo Primero Mexico Battalion. Born 1805 in Puebla.
Fought in Juarez's army against the French. Died 1872.
Treasurer/accountant for the Ejercito Operaciónes
Romero, José Maria Colonel, commanding the Permanente
Matamoros Battalion. Commanded the eastern attack column at the Alamo
assult. Captured at San Jacinto and later released. Was 38 years of
age at the time of the Texas Revolution.
Colonel, commanding Permanente Jimenez Battalion. Second-in-command
of Romero's attack column in Alamo assault.
Lieutenant-Colonel, inspector and adjutant of the Eastern Northern
Provinces. Present at the siege and battle of Bexar and the Alamo. Did
two of the three plats of the Alamo during the siege. Was from the wealthiest
families in Coahuila. Died at Saltillo in 1849.
Sesma, Joaquín Ramirez y
General, commanding the vanguard of the Ejercito Operaciónes.
Commanded cavalry in the Alamo assault as the vanguard of the Mexican
army on the march to the Brazos.
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Zapadores Battalion. Served as Corps Commander.
Born 1802. Later director of the Mexican Military College with which
he enjoyed a long association. Died in 1887.
General, commanding the Second Infantry Brigade.
Tornel, José Maria y Mendivil
General and Secretary of War and Navy. Born 1789. Highly patriotic
Mexican national, was captured and sentenced to death by Spanish but
escaped. Was a leader of the Mexican conservative (Centralist) party.
Extremely anti-North American. Noted man of letters involved in higher
education of Mexico. Died in 1853. The infamous Tornel Degree was issued
under his administration.
Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the Permanente Aldama Battalion.
Brigadier-General commanding the southern division of the Mexican Army
operating against the Texas Gulf Coast and Goliad. Assumed command of
Mexican Army following Filisola's replacement in May, 1836. Native of
Tuscon, Arizona, son of presidial officer. Served as a cadet in a presidial
company. Was pro-Federalist. Served as a division commander in Northern
Mexico during the US invasion. Died at Durango in 1849.